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    Circuit Diagram of a PV System with Storage: Professional Guidance

    • 7 min read

    The allure of integrating solar energy into our homes is at an all-time high as photovoltaic (PV) systems with storage become increasingly available, ensuring energy access around the clock, even when the sun isn't shining. Understanding the circuit diagram of a PV system with storage is crucial for homeowners looking to make the leap, as it provides the blueprint for effective energy capture, storage, and utilization.

    This guide offers professional guidance on the principles, components, and key points of the circuit connection in a PV system with storage. From the correct way to connect solar modules to the intricacies of wiring in series or parallel, we will navigate through the essentials of constructing a reliable and efficient solar power system. Let's dive in!

    Principles of PV System Circuit Connection

    Understanding the principles behind PV system with storage circuit diagram is essential for any homeowner considering solar power. These principles ensure your solar array functions efficiently, safely, and in harmony with your home's energy demands. Let's break down these core principles:

    • Compatibility and Integration:A seamless connection between the various components of a PV system—solar panels, inverters, batteries, and the meter cabinet—is vital. Each component must not only be compatible with the others but also integrated in a way that allows for smooth communication and power flow.
    • Maximizing Efficiency:The arrangement of solar panels and their connection to inverters and batteries plays a crucial role in maximizing the system's overall efficiency. By understanding how different configurations, like series or parallel connections, affect voltage and current, you can optimize your system to capture the maximum amount of solar energy possible.
    • Grounding and Bonding:Proper grounding and bonding practices are essential for system safety. Grounding provides a pathway for fault currents to safely dissipate, reducing the risk of electrical shocks and fires.
    • Circuit Protection:Incorporating appropriate fuses, circuit breakers, and surge protection devices helps safeguard the PV system against overcurrent, short circuits, and voltage spikes.
    • Regular Monitoring and Maintenance:Implementing a robust monitoring system allows for the timely detection of issues, facilitating proactive maintenance and ensuring the long-term reliability and performance of a PV system.
    • Compliance with Regulations:Compliance with regulations not only ensures safety but also guarantees that the system is eligible for any available incentives and will not face legal challenges. This includes obtaining necessary permits and ensuring that the installation is carried out by certified professionals. Section 8 of the Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG) lays the groundwork for the connection of solar systems.

    Key Standards and Regulations Include:

    Standard or Regulation


    DIN VDE 0100 (IEC 60364), Part 712

    Focuses on low-voltage electrical installations, with specific provisions for photovoltaic power supply systems.

    DIN VDE 0100-540

    Deals with the selection and erection of electrical equipment, emphasizing earthing arrangements and protective conductors.

    DIN VDE 0100 Part 410 (Earthing)

    Covers safety aspects related to earthing in electrical installations.

    DIN VDE 0298 (Electrical Systems)

    Governs installation and operation of electrical systems to meet safety and operational standards.

    DIN EN 62305 & VDE 0185 (Lightning Protection)

    Guidelines for the protection of structures against lightning, crucial for the safety of photovoltaic installations.

    ENV 61024 (Operation of High-Voltage Systems up to 1000 V)

    Ensures safety and operational integrity of installations operating at higher voltages.

    VDE 0105 (Cables and Wires in Buildings)

    Addresses the safe, reliable, and suitable use of cables and wires within buildings for photovoltaic systems.

    Components That Need to Be Connected in the PV System

    A PV system comprises several components that work together to capture, convert and store solar energy. Let's explore these essential parts:

    • Photovoltaic Modules:The heart of any solar energy system, PV modules capture sunlight and convert it into direct current (DC) electricity. Typically mounted on the roof or on the balcony with a compact balcony power plant, they are the first critical component in the PV system.
    • Inverter:The inverter helps convert the direct current (DC) generated by the PV modules into alternating current (AC) suitable for household or grid use. Depending on the system, you may have a central inverter for the entire setup or microinverters attached to each panel.
    • Battery Storage:Batteries allow you to store excess electricity generated during the day for use during the night or on cloudy days. The Anker SOLIX balcony power plant with storage, for example, features a substantial 1600Wh battery unit with 6,000 charging cycles, ensuring constant power supply.
    • Charge Controller:A charge controller regulates the flow of electricity to and from the battery storage, protecting the batteries from being overcharged or excessively discharged. This component is crucial for extending the life and performance of the battery storage.
    • Meter Cabinet:This component is responsible for measuring the electricity production and consumption of the system. In grid-tied systems, the meter cabinet can also track how much electricity is fed back into the grid, which can be important for systems that benefit from net metering policies.
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    Key Points of PV System Circuit Diagram with Storage

    A well-planned circuit diagram of a PV system with storage is crucial for the efficient and safe operation of the system. It outlines how components are interconnected, ensuring optimal performance and reliability. Here are the key points you should understand about the connection of PV system with memory circuit diagram:

    Correctly Connect Solar Modules

    Solar modules are the starting point of any PV system. When connecting them:

    • Series vs. Parallel:Decide whether to connect your panels in series or parallel, depending on the desired system voltage and current. Series connections increase voltage, while parallel connections increase current.
    • Orientation and Tilt:Ensure the diagram reflects the actual orientation and tilt of the panels for optimal sun exposure.
    • Bypass Diodes:Include bypass diodes in the diagram to protect the system from the effects of shading on individual panels.

    Connect the Inverter

    The inverter is the component responsible for converting DC to AC power. Here are key considerations for connecting the inverter:

    • Location:Place the inverter close to the panels to minimize DC power loss but in a location that protects it from extreme weather.
    • Capacity:Ensure the inverter's capacity matches the system's output. Oversizing by a small margin can accommodate future expansion.
    • Type:Decide between a central inverter or microinverters based on system size and complexity.

    Connect the Battery

    Efficient battery connection is needed for energy storage and discharge. Consider the following:

    • Proper Voltage Matching:Connect batteries with similar voltage ratings to avoid issues with charging and discharging.
    • Charge Controller:Include a charge controller between the panels and the battery to prevent overcharging and extend battery life.
    • Temperature Considerations:Install batteries in a cool, well-ventilated space to optimize performance and lifespan.

    Connect the Meter Cabinet

    The meter cabinet helps in monitoring and managing energy flow. Here's what to keep in mind:

    • Accurate Wiring:Ensure precise wiring of meters to provide accurate readings of energy production and consumption.
    • Accessible Location:Install the meter cabinet in a location easily accessible for maintenance and monitoring.
    • Regular Calibration:Regularly calibrate meters to maintain accurate measurements over time.

    Solar System Connected to the Grid

    For grid-tied systems, illustrating the connection to the utility grid is vital. Consider:

    • Grid Interface:Clearly show the point of connection to the grid, including any switches or relays required for grid isolation.
    • Regulatory Devices:Diagram any grid-tie inverters or protective devices required by local regulations to safely connect your system to the grid.
    • Emergency Disconnect:Include an emergency disconnect for utility workers to safely perform maintenance on the grid or your connection.

    Wiring Methods of Photovoltaic Modules: Series and Parallel

    The arrangement of PV modules greatly influences the overall performance of the system. Two common wiring methods are employed: series and parallel.

    Series Connection:

    In a series connection, the positive terminal of one PV module is connected to the negative terminal of the next, creating a chain. This increases the overall voltage of the system. While the voltage adds up, the current remains constant. Series connections are suitable for applications requiring higher voltage, such as grid-tied systems.

    Parallel Connection:

    In a parallel connection, the positive terminals are connected together, and the negative terminals are connected together. This configuration maintains the system voltage but increases the overall current. Parallel connections are advantageous for off-grid systems or those requiring higher current output.

    PV System without Feed-in

    A PV system without feed-in typically refers to a zero feed-in or a balcony power plant setup.

    Zero Feed-in PV System

    A zero feed-in PV system operates with the specific goal of ensuring no excess electricity is fed into the public supply network. This approach suits homeowners who prefer to consume all the power they generate, enhancing self-sufficiency.

    Here are the key components of a zero feed-in circuit diagram for PV system for self-consumption with storage:

    • Dynamic Inverter:The core of a zero feed-in system is an inverter capable of dynamically matching power generation to household consumption. This smart inverter actively prevents any surplus power from being exported to the grid.
    • Intelligent Power Meter:An intelligent power meter, typically installed in the base cabinet (fuse box), plays a pivotal role. It not only monitors but also manages the flow of electricity between the PV system, household consumption, and the grid connection point.

    Balcony Power Plant

    balcony power plant with storage, or plug-in solar system, presents an even more accessible option for harnessing solar energy with simplified installation and operation. It operates primarily to meet the on-site electricity needs of the property, and any surplus energy is typically not compensated when fed back into the grid.

    These systems, like the Anker SOLIX balcony power plant, can be directly plugged into a standard household socket through a Schuko cable, delivering power immediately to appliances in use, such as TVs, refrigerators, and washing machines. This direct feed into the home's circuit allows for immediate use of generated power without the need for a permanent, hardwired connection.


    Navigating through the circuit diagram of a PV system with storage reveals the meticulous planning and understanding required to harness solar energy effectively. Whether it's correctly connecting solar modules, choosing the right inverter, managing storage with batteries, or integrating the system into the grid, each step is a building block towards sustainable energy independence. Let this guide serve as a valuable resource to help you plan the configurations of your PV system effectively, illuminating the path to a greener, more sustainable future.


    Which cable between inverter and storage?

    For connecting an inverter to storage in a PV system, you typically use thick, insulated copper solar cables. The size and type of cable depend on the system's voltage and current requirements, as well as the distance between the inverter and the storage batteries.

    Is a PV power storage connected to DC?

    Yes, a PV power storage system is primarily connected to the DC (direct current) side. The solar modules generate DC power, which is then stored in batteries for later use. The DC connection involves linking the solar modules, charge controller, and batteries to efficiently capture, store, and manage solar energy.

    Can you connect battery storage yourself?

    Yes, you can connect battery storage to your PV system yourself, but it is strongly recommended that you have a good understanding of electrical systems and follow all safety guidelines and local regulations. For most homeowners, it's best to hire a professional installer to ensure the system is correctly and safely connected. Professional installation ensures compliance with building codes, electrical codes, and manufacturer's warranties.